Botswana CBDC Tracker

CBDC Information

Economic Information



Country Information

Freedom Rankings

Cato and Fraser Human Freedom Index:


Freedom House Index:


Reporters Without Borders Freedom Index:


Botswana is currently in the research phase. Bank of Botswana spokesperson Seamogano Mosanako said the central bank is currently looking at the impact of a CBDC would have on financial stability, monetary policy, regulation, and development.

Botswana earned a 72 out of 100 in Freedom House’s 2023 Freedom in the World report. Although it has scored well on many metrics, Botswana has serious issues with sweeping surveillance and restrictions on opposing voices. The issuance or adoption of a CBDC in Botswana could worsen these issues.

According to the U.S. Department of State, “A law enacted in February that gave security forces broad wiretapping powers and the ability to carry out unchecked undercover law enforcement operations, faced widespread condemnation from civil society over an encroachment on civil liberties. The law allows authorities to conduct wiretaps, compels communications companies to provide access and share data under threat of prosecution, allows for the creation of fake identifications in the national register, and gives authorities immunity on actions related to undercover operations.” Unfortunately, a CBDC could be used to greatly expand surveillance by putting financial records on government databases by default.

Insulting public officials or national symbols is a crime in Botswana. According to the U.S. Department of State, the law states that “any person who insults the country’s coat of arms, flag, presidential standard, or national anthem is guilty of an offense and may receive a substantial monetary fine under the sedition clause.” Unfortunately, a CBDC could be used as another tool in this effort. Across the world, governments have often turned to freezing and seizing the money of activists, political rivals, and protestors to undermine the opposition. A CBDC would make such initiatives easier by allowing governments to take direct control of each citizen’s finances.

For additional information on concerns regarding violations of human rights and civil liberties, see the following reports by Amnesty International, Financial Tyranny Index, Freedom House, Human Rights Watch, Privacy International, and the U.S. Department of State. For additional information on concerns regarding the risks of CBDCs, see the following webpage and report by the Cato Institute: The Risks of CBDCs and Central Bank Digital Currency: Assessing the Risks and Dispelling the Myths.

For additional information regarding metrics, the methodology page explains each of the data points and provides their respective sources.