Canada CBDC Tracker

CBDC Information

Economic Information

Monetary Base


Cash Issued




Country Information

Freedom Rankings

Cato and Fraser Human Freedom Index:


Freedom House Index:


Reporters Without Borders Freedom Index:


Canada is currently in the research phase, according to reports by the Bank of Canada. The Bank of Canada describes CBDCs as something that “would be a digital form of the cash in your wallet.” However, it fails to mention that CBDCs, unlike cash, leave a digital trail and often require identifying information. To its credit, the Bank of Canada does openly acknowledge that “We don’t see a need for a digital dollar right now.” Therefore, the Bank of Canada says it is only conducting research in case a need for CBDCs arises in the future.

The Bank of Canada collected public comments from May 8 to June 19 2023 and plans to announce further opportunities for the public to be involved in the conversation.

Canada earned a 98 out of 100 in Freedom House’s 2023 Freedom in the World report. Although there are not many concerns within Canada, it is worth flagging how the Canadian government recently used the financial system to stop protests in 2022. Issuing a CBDC could worsen events like these. Most notable among Trudeau’s responses was the decision to freeze the bank accounts of protestors and expand the reach of anti-money laundering (AML) laws.

In early 2022, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau resorted to invoking the Emergencies Act for the first time in Canadian history to try to control the protests over COVID-19 restrictions. In just one week, more than 200 bank accounts were frozen in an effort to crack down on the protests. Ottawa’s police chief, Steve Bell, said, “If you are involved in this protest, we will actively look to identify you and follow up with financial sanctions and criminal charges. This investigation will go on for months to come.” If Canada had a CBDC available at the time––especially on the individual or retail level––the process of freezing accounts would have been expedited and likely on a much grander scale.

For additional information on concerns regarding violations of human rights and civil liberties, see the following reports by Amnesty International, Financial Tyranny Index, Freedom House, Human Rights Watch, Privacy International, and the U.S. Department of State. For additional information on concerns regarding the risks of CBDCs, see the following webpage and report by the Cato Institute: The Risks of CBDCs and Central Bank Digital Currency: Assessing the Risks and Dispelling the Myths.

For additional information regarding metrics, the methodology page explains each of the data points and provides their respective sources.